Robert D. Shand, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the School of Education at American University. He received his Ph.D. in Economics and Education from Teachers College, Columbia University. Dr. Shand’s interests lie at the intersection of research, policy, and practice. His current research focuses on teacher improvement through collaboration and professional development and how schools and teachers use data from economic evaluation and accountability systems to make decisions and improve over time. Recent work with colleagues at the Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education at Teachers College has emphasized the unique opportunities and methodological challenges of evaluating complex partnership programs. He is a co-author of the third edition of Economic Evaluation in Education: Cost-Effectiveness and Benefit-Cost Analysis, an instructor in an Institute for Education Sciences-funded methods training program in cost and cost-effectiveness analysis in education, and he has contributed to publications in the American Journal of Evaluation, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, and the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, among other outlets.